Externalities and their measure: a simulation of value
Topic and its relevance. In economics, an externality is a cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit (think of pollution as an example). New forms of (crypto)currency offer the possibility of making externalities tradable. Would that amount to an overall benefit to society, and to what measure? To answer this question a model should be developed, taking into both account individual choices and physical constraints.
Questions and goals. How to define the value of things in a simulation? What elements of an economy should be simulated to properly represent externalities? How does the addition of a cryptocurrency changes this scenario?
Simulation of organised crime
Topic and its relevance. The organisation of criminal activities is a social activity, happening on a global scale, highly interconnected but often based on personal relationships. Crime causes substantial harm to the societies in which it operates, and it is difficult to reduce. Agent-based models of social interaction, also with a detailed geographical base, can reproduce some of these dynamics.
Questions and goals. What are, in accord the more effective measures that can be deployed to counter crime, with their advantages and disadvantages? The candidate will apply (and improve on) models created in the PROTON and GLODERS projects to answer this research question.